Insect Diseases in Humans
Vectors cause some of the most lethal diseases in the plant. These are living organisms that spread diseases from one organism to another. Most vectors are blood-sucking insects that carry microorganisms from one host to another.
Common vectors include mosquitoes, flies, ticks, sandflies, fleas, and triatomine bugs. Vector-borne diseases include malaria, dengue, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis. 700,000 of deaths come from these diseases. 17% of which occurred in tropical and subtropical areas.
In 2014, there was a major outbreak of dengue, malaria, Zika, and chikungunya. This caused the death of millions of people around the world. There are several factors that define the distribution of vector-borne diseases. This includes demographic, environmental, and social factors. Travel, trade, urbanization, climate change, and environmental calamities affect distribution as well.
The transmission of vector-borne diseases can be affected by several factors. These include poor waste management and lack of water sanitation. Experts note that changes in agricultural practices are a vital factor as well.
Response from the World Health Organization
The World Health Organization approved the Global Vector Control Response to provide guidance. They assist countries on how to strengthen vector control procedures and prevent disease outbreaks. To achieve this goal, the realignment of vector control programs is necessary. The program includes increased technical capacity, improved infrastructure, monitoring, and surveillance systems. They also aim to foster community mobilization and general awareness. Specifically, the WHO aims:
- To provide evidence-based guidance for controlling vectors and protecting people from diseases.
- To provide technical support to countries for effective management of cases and outbreaks.
- To support countries in improving their reporting systems to prevent vector-borne diseases.
- To provide training in clinical management, diagnosis, treatment, and control.
- To support the development of new tools, technologies, and approaches to vector-borne diseases.
WHO works with partners and advocates to improve awareness around the globe. Their goal is to foster knowledge and education for protection and action.
- Mosquitoes. These creatures have different species. The most common vectors are the Aedes, Anopheles, and the Culex Mosquitoes. The Aedes mosquito transmits the Chikungunya Disease, Dengue Fever, and many more. Lastly, the Anopheles Mosquito transmits Malaria. And the Culex Mosquito transmits the Japanese Encephalitis, and West Nile Fever.
- Flies. Horseflies spread the Loa Loa Filariasis to humans. The Tsetse flies transmit the sleeping sickness. Lastly, the sandflies carry leishmaniasis bacteria. Did you know that flies are responsible for larvae migration beneath the skin as well? For example, the Cayor Worm can enter the skin and lay its eggs. A person can acquire this larva by lying down on the contaminated ground. It could also be acquired by wearing clothes contaminated by fly eggs.
- Bed Bugs. Bed bugs are common sources of Chagas disease. Bed bugs can be found everywhere – from restaurants, hotels, grasslands, even vehicles. To prevent bringing bed bugs home, always secure your clothes and shoes. Keep your used clothes and shoes away from your room. Consider doing the laundry more than once a week to prevent infestation.
- Fleas. Fleas spread the Plague. A disease which is transmitted when a flea bites an infected rat and passes it on to humans. Typically, fleas are outdoor pests. But if it attaches itself to your dog’s fur, it is very difficult to get rid of. These creatures reproduce quickly and can live for three months without a host. They do not isolate themselves on your dog’s fur. They can live and brood anywhere inside your house. With a lack of knowledge, you might be facing a full-blown infestation of fleas at home.
- Ticks. Ticks are the most common sources of Crimean-Cong hemorrhagic fever, and Lyme Disease. It is the most lethal enemy of our pets. Ticks are typically found in grasslands. They latch themselves to the first human or animal host they get ahold of. Once the tick is on the skin, it moves towards the groin and the armpits where they implant themselves and feed.
The incidence and severity of these diseases are continuously changing. Some of them have become a result of hygiene and vaccination measures. Others have either disappeared, evolved, or reemerging. Regardless, these common vector-borne diseases are spreading. To further raise awareness, here are the most common vector-borne diseases.
- Malaria. This disease represents a common health risk among travelers. Malaria can be acquired while hiking and camping in tropical areas. To prevent vectors, it’s best to carry mosquito repellents and mosquito nets.
- The Chikungunya Virus. Caused by the Alphavirus, the Chikungunya Virus is an emerging disease from monkeys. Its transmission to human beings is caused by the bite of the Aedes Genus mosquito. This disease is common in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the entire Indian Subcontinent. But due to environmental changes, there is a probability that it could spread to other areas of the globe. The symptoms of the Chikungunya disease usually goes unnoticed. It usually includes fever, intense joint pain, and muscular pains. This is sometimes accompanied by a mild hemorrhage, eventually leading to death. The signs and symptoms of Chikungunya disease are not very specific. Often times, it is confused with other diseases such as dengue, and malaria.
- Dengue Fever. This disease is caused by Flavivirus and is common worldwide. The symptoms of dengue include fever and rashes on its early stages. In its last stages, a person experiences an extremely low level of platelets. In turn, he experiences hemorrhage which can lead to death. The disease usually lasts for a week if diagnosed and treated early. The diagnosis of dengue is tricky because it is often confused with typhoid fever and flu. The treatment in its early stages include analgesics, rehydration, and platelet-inducing medications. A late diagnosis requires confinement until the symptoms of the disease subside.
- Japanese Encephalitis. This disease is caused by Flavivirus. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of the Culex Genus mosquito. The source of this virus consists of a wide array of animals. According to experts, Japanese encephalitis is endemic in rural areas. These pests like to breed where there are rice fields and irrigations. According to statistics, over 30,000 to 50,000 people are affected every year. A huge percentage of the population comprises of children, leading up to 25,000 deaths a year. Unlike Malaria, the risk of travelers acquiring this disease is one in a million. But it is still recommended to take the necessary precautions when traveling. The symptoms of Japanese Encephalitis are as follows: Feverish state, accompanied by meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Like dengue, the treatment for Japanese Encephalitis is symptomatic. There are even prescribed preventive medications for the disease. Vaccination is recommended for adults who need to live for more than 30 days in Asia. It is prescribed for rural visits, especially those who plan to camp, hike, and work outdoors.
- Filariasis. This is a group of tropical diseases associated with the growth of larvae within human bodies. According to the World Health Organization, this disease poses a severe health issue for local populations. There are two types of this disease, namely: Lymphatic Filariasis which is transmitted by the mosquito (Culex, Anopheles, Aedes, and Mansonia). Lymphatic Filariasis has a wide geographical distribution and affects 120 million a year. The symptoms include lymphatic drainage, edema, lymphangitis, and other superinfection. The second is Loa Loa Filariasis which is a disease is a cutaneous-type of filariasis transmitted by the horsefly. A bite from this creature causes microfilariae to live in the human blood. The symptoms of Loa Loa Filariasis include itching, urticarial episodes, and edema. When the eggs turn into larvae, they start to move around the body at a speed of 1 cm per minute. It can even pass through the eyes which cause tearing, red-eye, and foreign body sensation.
Call for Pest Control Service
Prevention is always better than cure. Take precautionary measures on your own. Start by keeping your surroundings clean and neat. It also helps to invest in your local pest control service in Denver.
Contact Lake Norman Pest Control for the most competent pest control service around you. This company has been providing service for more than 50 years. Their experts pride themselves in using treatments for pest control. To prevent any insects from invading your home, call for Lake Norman Pest Control. Let them help you install preventive measures against all kinds of pests and insects. In a matter of time, you will be enjoying the safe and disease-free life away from pests.
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